Chapter 23-War and Revolution
· Slavic minorities, the Irish, and the Poles- ethnic groups that had not become nations
· Conscription- a military draft
· Militarism, nationalism and the desire to stifle internal dissent- played parts in the starting of World War I
· The Black Hand- Serbian terrorist organization
· Serbia & Austria- Austria did not want Serbia to create its own Slavic state
· Rejection of ultimatum- Serbia had to reject Austria’s ultimatum because the changes were too extreme
· Britain joins the war- After Germany disregards Belgium’s neutrality
· Before 1914- many political leaders had thought that war involved so many political and economic risks that it would not be worth fighting
· First Battle of the Marne- halted German troops into Paris
· Battle of Tannenberg and Battle of Masurian Lakes- battles where Russia was defeated by Germany
· Verdun, Franc- seven hundred thousand men lost their lives over a few miles of land
· Gallipoli- place southwest of Constantinople
· Defense of the Realm Act (DORA)- allowed government to arrest protestors as traitors in Britain
· Alexandra- German born wife of Czar Nicholas II
· Grigori Rasputin- uneducated Siberian peasant who claimed to be a holy man
· Petrograd- formerly St. Petersburg
· Duma- legislative body in Russia
· Alexander Kerensky- headed the provisional government
· Leon Trotsky- dedicated revolutionary and head of the Petrograd soviet
· Winter Palace- the seat of the provisional government
· Congress of Soviets- represented local soviets from all over the country
· Council of People’s Commissars- had real power and headed by Lenin
· Treaty of Brest Litovsk- gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces for peace
· War communism- government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under communist control
· Cheka- Red secret police that began the Red Terror
· Russian Revolution- led to Russia’s withdrawal from World War I
· Erich von Ludendorff- guided Germany military operations
· Second Battle of Marne- stopped German troops from overcoming stalemate in Paris
· Firedrich Ebert- announced the creation of a democratic republic in Germany
· German Communist Party- a group of radical socialists unhappy with the moderate policies of the Social Democrats
· Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht- leaders of the German communists who were murdered by the Social Democratic government
· David Lloyd George- prime minister of Great Britain
· Georges Clemenceau- premiere of France
1. Describe the impact of trench warfare in World War I.
Trench warfare was an unexpected development during World War I. It essentially saw the creation of trenches, protected by barbed wire as a means of defense. Here, machine-gun nests would be placed as well as other heavy artillery further back and gun batteries. Troops tended to stay within the trench itself. Trench warfare heavily impacted World War I. This new development was not something military leaders had been prepared for. The general plan developed to break through to someone else’s trench was by throwing masses of men against enemy lines that had been battered with artillery. This proved to be a huge failure, as when the men went out into open fields they were shot down by rapid machine gun fire. Trench warfare was evidently the reason for the stalemate in the West.
2. Describe Wilson’s 14 points.
Wilson’s fourteen points was his basis for the peace settlement for World War I. One of the main factors Wilson kept in mind was the policy of secret diplomacy. Many countries had made secret peace agreements with each other and Wilson believed the best way for peace would be to make the agreements openly. Next, Wilson believed nations should reduce armaments. He believed that by reducing military forces and weapons, nations would not feel as threatened by each other and the weapons kept handy would be sufficient for domestic safety. Finally, Wilson believed in ensuring self-determination. Self-determination is the right of each people to its own nation. Many ethnic minorities in Europe were eager for their own nations, and Wilson thought it fit for this to occur without absolutism or militarism.
3. Describe in detail the Schlieffen plan.
The Schlieffen plan was a German military plan developed by General Schlieffen. It essentially called for a two-front war with France and Russia during World War I. The point of the plan was for Germany to have a small army fight Russia while the majority would be fighting France in the west. After the defeat of the French, Germany would be able to proceed to Russia. Unfortunately, it was the Schlieffen plan that caused Britain to join the war with the Allies. In order for Germany to get to France, it would have to invade neutral Belgium. In doing so, Britain declared war on Germany for violating Belgian neutrality. This plan also led to the long-lasting stalemate in Paris.
4. Describe the role of women during World War I.
During World War I, the role of women had increased. Women were assigned to take over jobs that their husbands had left behind. This included chimney sweeps, truck drivers, farm laborers, and factory workers. These were jobs, however, were not permanent. At the end of the war, women were quickly removed from their jobs and left unemployed. That is not to say, however, that the war did not have a positive impact on women. In fact, in some countries the rights of women had increased with the war. The most common right, the right to vote, had been given to women in places like Germany, Austria, Britain, and the United States. Younger women even began to have their own apartments and get their own jobs.