1. Masters, W.H. and Johnson, V. E. (1966): human sexual response
Masters and Johnson designed this experiment to gain knowledge about the human sexual response. This was a neglected field of study before, but Masters and Johnson pursued their experiments and created the four stage model of the sexual response; excitement phase, plateau phase, orgasm, and resolution phase.
2. Ekman, P. and Friesen, W. V. (1971): Constants across cultures in the face and emotion.
Ekman and Friesen investigated the question of whether any facial expressions of emotion are universal. They found that facial expressions of emotions are universal.
3. Holmes, T.H. and Rahe, R.H. (1967): The social readjustment rating scale.
Holmes and Rahe developed the Holmes and Rahe stress scale. They created their scale as a list of 43 stressful life events that can possibly contribute to illness.
4. Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J.M. (1959): Cognitive consequences of forced compliance.
This study, done in the 1950’s, showed that the private onion changes so as to bring it into closer correspondence with the overt behavior the person was forced to perform.
5. Rotter, J.B. (1966): Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement.
This study, done by Julian Rotter, was performed to witness the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. This was later dubbed “the locus of control.” It is conceptualized as either internal or external (a person believes they can control their life or otherwise believes the environment controls their life).
6. Bem, S.L. (1974): The measurement of psychological androgyny.
Bem created the Bem Sex Role Inventory, which is an inventory that allows individuals to exhibit both male and female characteristics, hence her work with psychological androgyny. She also developed the gender schema theory, which states that an individual uses gender as a way to organize various things in their lives into categories.
7. Friedman, M. and Rosenman, R.H. (1959): Association of specific overt behavior pattern with blood and cardiovascular findings.
Friedman and Rosenman created a study to measure how job occupations can affect health. The three groups of men were compared with respect to their serum cholesterol levels, clotting times, presence of clinical coronary disease, and presence of arcus senilis.
8. Triandis, H., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M., Asai, M., and Lucca, N. (1988): Individualism and collectivsm: cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships.
The individualism and collectivism constructs are theoretically analyzed and linked to certain hypothesized consequences (social behaviors, health indices). Study 1 explores the meaning of these constructs within culture (in the US), identifying the individual-differences variable, idiocentrism versus allocentrism, that corresponds to the constructs. Factor analyses of responses to items related to the constructs suggest that US individualism is reflected in (a) Self-Reliance With Competition, (b) Low Concern for Ingroups, and (c) Distance from Ingroups
9. Rosenhan, D.L. (1973): On being sane in insane places.
Rosenhan’s experiment basically stated that it is not possible to tell the difference between the sane and insane. Rosenhan stated, “It is clear that we cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in psychiatric hospitals.” It also emphasized the dangers of dehumanization in psychiatric institutions.
10. Freud, A. (1946): The ego and the mechanisms of defense.
Anna Freud stated that defense mechanisms are unconscious psychic processes that provide the ego with relief from the state of psychic conflict between the intruding id, the threatening superego, and the powerful influences emanating form the external reality.
11. Seligman, M.E.P. and Maier, S. F. (1967): Failure to escape traumatic shock.
Failure to escape traumatic shock, or learned helplessness, is when an organism is forced to endure aversive stimuli because it has learned that it cannot control the situation. This has been the view that clinical depression and related mental illnesses may result from a perceived absence of control over the outcome of the situation.
12. Calhoun, J.B. (1962): Population density and social pathology.
Calhoun claimed that the bleak effects of overpopulation on rodents were a grim model for the future of the human race.
13. Smith, M.I. and Glass, G. V. (1977): Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies.
“Results of 375 controlled evaluations of psychotherapy and counseling were coded and integrated statistically. The findings provide convincing evidence of the efficacy of psychotherapy. On the average, the typical therapy client is better off than 75% of untreated individuals.” Source: APA PsychNET
14. Wolpe, J. (1961): The systematic desensitization treatment of neuroses.
Wolpe came up with a form of counter conditioning known as systematic desensitization. It is a type of behavior therapy used to help effectively overcome phobias.
15. Rorschach, H. (1942): Psychodiagnostics: A diagnostic test based on perception.
Psychodiagnositcs is a branch of psychology concerned with the use of tests in the evaluation of personality and the determination of factors underlying human behavior.
16. Murray, H.A. (1938): Explorations in personality.
Murray developed a theory of personality called Personology, based on “need” and “press”.
17. Zimbardo, P.G. (1972): The pathology of imprisonment.
Zimbardo’s Stanford prison experiment was designed to see what caused the abusive behavior in prison. Zimbardo concluded that situational attribution of behavior as opposed to dispositional attribution was the result for the abusive behavior. It was the situation rather than the individuals’ personalities.
18. Asch, S.E. (1955): Opinions and social pressure.
This experiment developed by Solomon Asch was to see how influential a majority’s opinion was on an individual. This experiment was designed to see the degree of influence society has on people.
19. Darley, J.M. and Latane, B. (1968): Bystander intervention in emergencies: diffusion of responsibility.
Darley and Latane discovered the diffusion of responsibility phenomenon. This basically states that a person is less likely to take responsibility for action or inaction when others are present. The person assumes that other individuals are responsible for taking action.
20. Milgram, S. (1963): Behavioral study of obedience.
Measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts conflicting with their personal conscience. This experiment was conducted shortly after World War II to see if Hitler’s accomplices were just following orders or if they really wanted to do what he asked.