Describe how each of the following relates to the results of the written exam. Definitions alone will not receive points; you must describe/explain.

  • Predictive validity
  • Standardization
  • Declarative Memory
  • Hippocampus



Predictive validity is a type of prediction to determine how well one may do in the future. The written exam may be a predictive validity to determine how well the student may do in the next year. If the student receives poor results, there is a higher possibility that the student may not do well in the next year. On the contrary, higher results may suggest the student will excel next year.


Standardization is the process of making the testing and scoring procedures uniform and objective. A standardized test will have questions in which only one answer is plausible. If the student receives poor results on the written exam because their opinion was no the answer the test was looking for, then the test is considered not to be standard. In order for the results to resemble a standardized test, both the questions and the answers must be objective, meaning questions will solely be based on fact and not opinion.


Declarative memory is long-term memory that is consciously known. Poor results on the exam will demonstrate the student’s lack of studying. The information has not reached their long-term memory and has not become declarative memory. If the information had become declarative memory, the information would have consciously been known and the student would have been able to retrieve the memory and answer the questions correctly.


The hippocampus is a curved structure in our temporal lobes that is responsible for memory. It allows us to locate objects and store long-term memories. If the student does well in questions where she/he must recall the information, then it can be concluded the information has been stored in his/her long-term memory, which the hippocampus is responsible for.

Describe how each of the following might influence Zane’s ability to perform on his oboe during the performance evaluation. Definitions alone will not earn points.

    • Operant conditioning
    • Mental Imagery
    • Cerebellum
    • Frontal lobe
    • Circadian Rhythm


Operant conditioning is the process of learning voluntary behavior through reinforcement and punishment. The positive reinforcement Zane has experienced previously from playing his oboe (compliments, applause, etc.) will make Zane more confident during his performance evaluation. If Zane has not experienced much or any positive reinforcement, Zane may be nervous in his evaluation and feel less confident. As a result, he may not perform as well.


Mental imagery, or visualization rehearsal, will allow Zane to be more prepared for his evaluation. Before his evaluation, Zane can mentally imagine himself giving his evaluation and “see” what notes he has to play and how he needs to play his oboe. Through mental imagery, Zane can run through his performance while waiting without having to actually play his oboe. If Zane is satisfied with his run through in his mind, he will most likely feel more confident in his evaluation and obtain better results.


The cerebellum is a part of our brain essential for involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement. In order to play his oboe, Zane’s cerebellum must be able to make his fingers play in a precise fashion. If Zane’s cerebellum for some reason was not functioning properly, his movements would be clumsy and he would not do well on his evaluation. Zane’s cerebellum is what will decide what notes to play and how.


The frontal lobe is responsible for higher mental processes and decision making. Zane’s frontal lobes are what are going to help him read his music and decide how he wants to play his piece. They will also help in when thinking about actions and consequences. This could range from how to behave in front of the evaluators to how loud his last measures should be. These factors will contribute to Zane’s overall performance.


Zane’s circadian rhythm, or sleep-wake cycle, must be on track so he does not feel sleepy or tired during his evaluation. If for some reason Zane’s circadian rhythm is off due to, for example, jet lag, it is possible Zane will be too tired to think straight and perform properly. Zane should make sure he has a schedule to follow on the day of his performance so he does not encounter anything surprising that may throw him off track before his evaluation.